Christ the Redeemer, Blessed, John Evangelist, The Lord Our Savior, Trinity.
The names of churches on your block? Nope. Just the names of slave ships that made over 40,000 trips back and forth across the Atlantic during the Trans Atlantic slave trade. The LARGEST FORCED MIGRATION IN HUMAN HISTORY. (via howtobeterrell)
i thought this was a joke or a mistake. and then i looked it up. and it’s not. and WHAT THE ACTUAL HELL?
"Where are you from?"
"I have a folder on my desktop dedicated to women like you."
I am tired of Brazilian women only making the international news because of their butts. I am tired of prancing lingerie-clad models being representative of Brazilian women. I am tired of seeing “Brazilian Butts” workout DVD commercials. Mostly, I am tired of the glorification of Brazilian butts which minimizes Brazilian women to one part of their body.
I don’t want my culture to be defined by butts and because of that I want to bring to light some extremely awesome Brazilian women who have or are contributing immensely to the empowerment of Latina women and just kicking butts left and right.
Chiquinha Gonzaga - In 1868, Chiquinha’s husband made her choose between him and her piano. She chose music. Between protesting slavery and supporting her two children alone, Chiquinha wrote over two thousand songs including Brazil’s very first Carnaval ‘marcha’.
Maria da Penha - Maria escaped her husband’s two attempts to murder her and waited twenty years before he was punished for it. Brazil now has the Maria da Penha law which increases the punishment for domestic violence against women.
Carmen da Silva - in the 60’s and 70’s Carmen wrote about divorce and motherhood as a choice. Carmen also encouraged women to seek work as a form of freedom from financial and psychological dependency.
Pagu - In 1922, at the age of 14, Pagu had an abortion. Despite the social constraints of the time, Pagu spoke openly about sex education and of birth control options and availability.
Leila Diniz - During the Brazilian dictatorship this actress spoke openly about sexuality despite the strict censorship laws. Leila is credited for normalizing female sexuality and dispelling the myth of women not being able to separate love and sex.
Nisia Floresta - In 1832, when most women did not know how to read, 22-year-old Nisia wrote a book titled “The Rights of Women and the Injustices of Men”. Eventually she opened a school in Rio de Janeiro to teach women mathematics and history.
EUROPEANS TAUGHT FOR CENTURIES that Africa had no written history, literature or philosophy (claiming Egypt was other than African). When roughly 1 MILLION manuscripts were found in Timbuktu/Mali covering , according to Reuters “all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine,” IT DID NOT MAKE MAINSTREAM NEWS as did the lies taught by Europeans concerning Africa
Someone asked me to somehow “verify” that this story is real.
Of course it’s real! The PROBLEM with the coverage regarding these manuscripts is that they’re constantly portrayed as being in “danger” because many of them are still in the possession of Malian descendants. About 700,000 have been cataloged so far, and they have had to be moved in part because apparently extremist groups have tried to firebomb them. Many others are still in the possession of the families they have been passed down in.
Some of these collected manuscripts are being housed in exile, but mold and humidity have been a constant threat. They have been raising funds to try and preserve these manuscripts-you can read more about the project to house and protect them here.
A bit of the history of these manuscripts from National Geographic:
These sacred manuscripts covered an array of subjects: astronomy, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, judicial law, government, and Islamic conflict resolution. Islamic study during this period of human history, when the intellectual evolution had stalled in the rest of Europe was growing, evolving, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, law, and philosophy within the Muslim world.
By the 1300s the “Ambassadors of Peace” centered around the University of Timbuktu created roving scholastic campuses and religious schools of learning that traveled between the cities of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djénné, helping to serve as a model of peaceful governance throughout an often conflict-riddled tribal region.
At its peak, over 25,000 students attended the University of Timbuktu.
By the beginning of the 1600s with the Moroccan invasions from the north, however, the scholars of Timbuktu began to slowly drift away and study elsewhere. As a result, the city’s sacred manuscripts began to fall into disrepair. While Islamic teachings there continued for another 300 years, the biggest decline in scholastic study occurred with the French colonization of present-day Mali in the late 1890s.
So yeah, basically the story of this collection’s source more or less ends with “…but unfortunately, colonialism”, as do most of the great cities of Africa, the Americas, and some parts of Asia.
Also, as an additional consideration:
With the pressures of poverty, a series of droughts, and a tribal Tureg rebellion in Mali that lasted over ten years, the manuscripts continue to disappear into the black market, where they are illegally sold to private and university collections in Europe and the United States.
Notice where the blame is placed here via language use: on the people in poverty forced to sell their treasures, as opposed to the Universities in Europe and the U.S. buying them.
It’s really just another face of Neocolonialism.
Fun fact: I only learned about that library by playing one of the Civilization games where it exists as a wonder
One of the many reasons why Medievalpoc is also about representation in all types of media.
One of the most important ways the past affects us all today is the media we create about it. History is a story, and a story bears the mark of each teller it passes through. So, each time we tell a story, we have the power to shape it as it passes through us, to others.
Whether we’re writing textbooks, fiction, or articles; sharing something on Facebook, teaching a class, playing a game, or texting our moms, we make choices in how we phrase things and frame information. When you hold things in your mind, like the Library of Timbuktu, and think about how it interacts with everything else you know, it will affect your words and behavior, which in turn affects the people around you.
As I wrote about yesterday, Colonialism in many ways involves telling lies about entire nations and peoples, and using power, ruthlessness, and brutality to make them into almost-truths. After all, if you burn the manuscripts of an entire people and then tell them they have no history; if you make teaching what remains of their history illegal, is that not violence? Is that not genocide?
I’m sure there are those who would call that an exaggeration or hyperbole, but these are often the selfsame folks who are moved to violence to defend the idea the European history is populated entirely and without exception by people we in the U.S. would consider white today. We can pretend all we like that this vision of an all-white historical Europe came from nothing, no one, and nowhere, as if it is undiluted truth that comes to us untainted by centuries of colonialism. But the facts are that you can point to specific moments, authors, and articles that show the turning points; that show these ideas being born. You can read Race Mixture in the Roman Empire by Frank Tenney (from 1916) and see how articles like these shaped American views of race in antiquity; how the racism of 1916 was imposed onto Classical Antiquity. And these are the same people who decided that an entire continent did not have books, had no written history.
Why do we know what we know? Where does it come from? And how does the media we are creating today reflect it?
Emma Tenayuca was a Mexican American activist and educator. Born December 21, 1916 in San Antonio, Texas, Tenayuca was a key figure in Texan labor and civil rights activism during the 1930’s, where she organized protests over the beatings of Mexican migrants by United States Border Patrol agents and labor strikes to end unfair wages. As a union activist, she also founded two international ladies’ garment workers unions and was involved in both the Worker’s Alliance of America and Woman’s League for Peace and Freedom.
Throughout her fight for labor and civil rights, Tenayuca was arrested many times under charges of “disturbing the peace”, even though her participation during protests was strictly peaceful. She was also targeted for being a member of the Communist Party, which resulted in her being “blacklisted” and forced to move out of the San Antonio area 1939. After leaving her hometown she went on to attend San Francisco State College where she majored in Education. Years later Tenayuca returned to San Antonio and earned a master’s in Education from Our Lady of the Lake University, leading her to eventually go on to teach in the Harlandale School District until her retirement in 1982.
Shortly after her retirement Emma Tenayuca was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and passed away on July 23, 1999.
If you’re reading this, you probably follow the news. So you’ve probably heard of the latest iteration of the “crisis at the border”: tens of thousands of children, many of them unaccompanied by an adult, crossing the desert from Mexico into the United States, where they surrender to the Border Patrol in hope of being allowed to remain here permanently. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s detention and hearing system has been overwhelmed by the surge of children and, in some cases, their parents. The Obama Administration has asked Congress to approve new funding to speed up processing and deportations of these illegal immigrants.
Even if you’ve followed this story closely, you probably haven’t heard the depressing backstory — the reason so many Central Americans are sending their children on adangerous thousand-mile journey up the spine of Mexico, where they ride atop freight trains, endure shakedowns by corrupt police and face rapists, bandits and other predators. (For a sense of what it’s like, check out the excellent 2004 film “Maria Full of Grace.”)
NPR and other mainstream news outlets are parroting the White House, which blamesunscrupulous “coyotes” (human smugglers) for “lying to parents, telling them that if they put their kids in the hands of traffickers and get to the United States that they will be able to stay.” True: the coyotes are saying that in order to gin up business. Also true: U.S. law has changed, and many of these kids have a strong legal case for asylum. Unfortunately, U.S. officials are ignoring the law.
The sad truth is that this “crisis at the border” is yet another example of “blowback.”
Blowback is an unintended negative consequence of U.S. political, military and/or economic intervention overseas — when something we did in the past comes back to bite us in the ass.9/11 is the classic example; arming and funding radical Islamists in the Middle East and South Asia who were less grateful for our help than angry at the U.S.’ simultaneous backing for oppressive governments (The House of Saud, Saddam, Assad, etc.) in the region.
More recent cases include U.S. support for Islamist insurgents in Libya and Syria, which destabilized both countries and led to the murders of U.S. consular officials in Benghazi, and the rise of ISIS, the guerilla army that imperils the U.S.-backed Maliki regime in Baghdad, respectively.
Confusing the issue for casual American news consumers is that the current border crisis doesn’t involve the usual Mexicans traveling north in search of work. Instead, we’re talking about people from Central American nations devastated by a century of American colonialism and imperialism, much of that intervention surprisingly recent. Central American refugees are merely transiting through Mexico.
"The unaccompanied children crossing the border into the United States are leaving behind mainly three Central American countries, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala. The first two are among the world’s most violent and all three have deep poverty, according to a Pew Research report based on Department of Homeland Security (DHS) information,” reports NBC News. “El Salvador ranked second in terms of homicides in Latin America in 2011, and it is still high on the list. Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador are among the poorest nations in Latin America. Thirty percent of Hondurans, 17 percent of Salvadorans and 26 percent of Guatemalans live on less than $2 a day.”
The fact that Honduras is the biggest source of the exodus jumped out at me. That’s because, in 2009, the United States government — under President Obama — tacitly supported a military coup that overthrew the democratically elected president of Honduras. “Washington has a very close relationship with the Honduran military, which goes back decades,” The Guardian noted at the time. “During the 1980s, the US used bases in Honduras to train and arm the Contras, Nicaraguan paramilitaries who became known for their atrocities in their war against the Sandinista government in neighbouring Nicaragua.”
Honduras wasn’t paradise under President Manuel Zelaya. Since the coup, however, the country has entered a downward death spiral of drug-related bloodshed and political revenge killings that crashed the economy, brought an end to law, order and civil society, and now has some analysts calling it a “failed state” along the lines of Somalia and Afghanistan during the 1990s.
"Zelaya’s overthrow created a vacuum in security in which military and police were now focused more on political protest, and also led to a freeze in international aid that markedly worsened socio-economic conditions," Mark Ungar, professor of political science at Brooklyn College and the City University of New York, told The International Business Times. “The 2009 coup, asserts [Tulane] professor Aaron Schneider, gave the Honduran military more political and economic leverage, at the same time as the state and political elites lost their legitimacy, resources and the capacity to govern large parts of the country.”
El Salvador and Guatemala, also narcostates devastated by decades of U.S. support for oppressive, corrupt right-wing dictatorships, are suffering similar conditions.
(Photo Credit: AP | Supporters of ousted Honduras’ President Manuel Zelaya clash with soldiers near the presidential residency Tegucigalpa, Monday, June 29. 2009. Police fired tear gas to hold back thousands of Hondurans outside the occupied presidential residency as world leaders appealed to Honduras to reverse a coup that ousted the president.)
White men make up approximately 36% of the population, but commit 75% of mass shootings. What would be called terrorism by any other skin tone is suddenly some mysterious unnamed disease. We as a society are perfectly happy to further stigmatize mentally ill people, who are far more likely to be victims of violence than commit violence, in the service of protecting white supremacy and male entitlement.
Anonymous asked: So why don't feminists shave their armpits and stuff? It's not like MEN force you to do it, and like as a girl it's uncomfortable and holds more sweat and just ew. I don't know if you're braver or just lazier than the average girl
alright i don’t normally reply to these but im feelin chatty so here goes
first of all, underarm hair helps ventilate sweat, control odor, and does a great job of keepin moisture away from the skin!! its 10x more physically comfy for me believe it or not!!
now, let’s have a short history lesson here, and keep in mind that we’re talking about westernized white women because in many places and cultures this phenomenon simply does not apply
moving onward, ladies shaving their armpits didnt really catch on until around the 1920s and this was almost entirely sparked because marketing companies wanted to double the demographic they could sell razors to. to kickstart it, they released this scandalous picture in Harper’s Bazaar in 1915:
which first planted the seed. at the time, the photo was extremely risque as it was really the first time a womans bare underarm had been shown in American media that wasnt pornographic. the word “underarm” itself was shocking! in a very deliberate move, they’d paired a revolutionary photo with a trend they wished to sell. in 1922 sears released “female” razors and it eventually trickled down to the middle class and the lower class with time, as fashion trends often do. turns out, the war against armpit hair was one of the most successful business campaigns ever!!
wanting to follow in these footsteps, they worked on leg hair. women still didnt begin shaving their legs until around 1943. even those iconic flappers who wore short hemlines still sported fuzzy legs! Daisy Fay Buchanan was probably a furry gal herself.
a part of the hesitation for a woman to shave her legs was that she would appear more promiscuous because the legs are so indicative of the vulva. alas, after WWII, Betty Grable posed for this sexy image:
and eventually the look went from celebrities to other patriotic girls and then to everyone else.
what do both have in common you ask??? they were both deliberately manufactured propaganda made by white men for the sole reason of making money by exploiting women.
im not telling you what you should or should not do with your body and all the hair that grows on it. its ok if shaving makes you feel more feminine or clean. all im saying is that it’s a good idea to analyze why youve been lead to believe a little fuzz is so “ew” to you, and really think about whether it should be. it hasn’t always been this way (in fact it only recently became so) and im here to say it doesnt have to be that way either. take this knowledge and run with it but its ultimately your choice.
as for me, no, i wouldnt say im braver or lazier than the average girl. i just reject the idea that a bullshit made up westernized whitie can make my decisions for me. and personally, i find my kitten armpits exceptionally cute.
ill leave you with this my friend: if girls weren’t meant to have body hair then why do girl’s bodies grow hair ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
Jury nullification. Pass it on.
Jury nullification is so fucking important.
This is something that more people should be aware of, if only because (in many states, at least) defense attorneys are actually prohibited from mentioning it to jurors. The law allows a jury to return a “not guilty” verdict contrary to the facts of the case, but not for the defense to inform them of that power or to argue for its application in the current trial.
I didn’t know about this. Wow.
This is SUPER IMPORTANT and also a good reason to show up for jury duty. You know all those laws you think are stupid? This is your chance to maybe do something about it.
I…. I thought this was common knowledge… signal boosting this because it obviously isn’t!