There are at least three ways in which [U.S. foreign] aid to Israel is different from that of any other country. First, since 1982, U.S. aid to Israel has been transferred in one lump sum at the beginning of each fiscal year, which immediately begins to collect interest in U.S. banks. Aid that goes to other countries is disbursed throughout the year in quarterly installments.
Second, Israel is not required to account for specific purchases. Most countries receive aid for very specific purposes and must account for how it is spent. Israel is allowed to place US aid into its general fund, effectively eliminating any distinctions between types of aid. Therefore, U.S. tax-payers are helping to fund an illegal occupation, the expansion of colonial-settlement projects, and gross human rights violations against the Palestinian civilian population.
A third difference is the sheer amount of aid the U.S. gives to Israel, unparalleled in the history of U.S. foreign policy. Israel usually receives roughly one third of the entire foreign aid budget, despite the fact that Israel comprises less than .001 of the world’s population and already has one of the world’s higher per capita incomes. In other words, Israel, a country of approximately 6 million people, is currently receiving more U.S. aid than all of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean combined when you take out Egypt and Colombia.
Anonymous asked: Yeah because you can totally tell how smart I am based on my opinion that porn is okay vs your opinion that is isn't. You're what's wrong with feminism; making men evil no matter what and women are always innocent victims who can't make choices for themselves. Because porn stars are totally forced to shoot videos and none of them have EVER quit the industry, right? Oh wait they have.
gonna need to pull your head out of your ass to read this one buddy
MASSIVE trigger warning for the following links and bullets. includes mentions of rape, abuse, violence, racism, misogyny, homophobia, child sex abuse, pedophilia
- There are over 420 million pages of pornographic material online worldwide. (IFR)
- 72 million searches for porn are logged monthly. (IFR)
- 25% of all daily search engine requests are for pornography (68 million searches daily) (IFR)
- 42.7% of internet users view porn (IFR)
- 100,000-plus websites are devoted to child pornography. There are over 116,000 daily requests for this material. (IFR)
- 20% of men admit to accessing pornography at work (IFR)
- 35% of those purchasing online porn make $75,000-plus annually. (IFR)
- The United States is the top producer of pornographic web pages with 244,661,900, or 89 percent (IFR)
- Worldwide revenue from mobile phone pornography is $1 billion-plus and growing (Bryan-Low, Cassel and Pringle, David. “Sex Cells: Wireless Operators Find That Racy Cellphone Video Drives Surge in Broadband Use.” The Wall Street Journal, May 12, 2005)
Ex-porn star testimonies:
- Corina Taylor: ”When I arrived to the set I expected to do a vaginal girl boy scene. But during the scene with a male porn star, he forced himself anally into me and would not stop. I yelled at him to stop and screamed ‘No’ over and over but he would not stop. The pain became too much and I was in shock and my body went limp.”
- Jenna Jameson: ”Most girls get their first experience in gonzo films – in which they’re taken to a crappy studio apartment in Mission Hills and penetrated in every hole possible by some abusive asshole who thinks her name is Bitch.”
- Alexa James: ”The first shoot I did was with a man who was probably 40 and he was as thick as a soda can. He held me down and shoved it in me with no lube tearing my vagina. When I started to tear up and cry he flipped me over and continued from behind be so they wouldn’t get me crying on film. He pulled my hair and choked me over and over again even when I told him it hurt and I could barely breathe.”
- Linda Lovelace: ”My initiation into prostitution was a gang rape by five men, arranged by Mr. Traynor. It was the turning point in my life. He threatened to shoot me with the pistol if I didn’t go through with it. I had never experienced anal sex before and it ripped me apart. They treated me like an inflatable plastic doll, picking me up and moving me here and there. They spread my legs this way and that, shoving their things at me and into me, they were playing musical chairs with parts of my body. I have never been so frightened and disgraced and humiliated in my life. I felt like garbage. I engaged in sex acts for pornography against my will to avoid being killed.The lives of my family were threatened.”
- Andi Anderson: ”After a year or so of that so-called “glamorous” life, I sadly discovered that drugs and drinking were a part of the lifestyle. I began to drink and party out of control! Cocaine, alcohol and ecstasy were my favorites. Before long, I turned into a person I did not want to be. After doing so many hardcore scenes I couldn’t do it anymore. I just remember being in horrible situations and experiencing extreme depression and being alone and sad.”
- Alexa Milano: ”My first movie I was treated very rough by 3 guys. They pounded on me, gagged me with their penises, and tossed me around like I was a ball! I was sore, hurting and could barely walk. My insides burned and hurt so badly. I could barely pee and to try to have a bowel movement was out of the question. I was hurting so bad from the physical abuse from these 3 male porn stars.”
- Jessie Jewels: ”People in the porn industry are numb to real life and are like zombies walking around. The abuse that goes on in this industry is completely ridiculous. The way these young ladies are treated is totally sick and brainwashing. I left due to the trauma I experienced even though I was there only a short time.”
- Genevieve: ”I had bodily fluids all over my face that had to stay on my face for ten minutes. The abuse and degradation was rough. I sweated and was in deep pain. On top of the horrifying experience, my whole body ached, and I was irritable the whole day. The director didn’t really care how I felt; he only wanted to finish the video.”
- Jersey Jaxin: ”Guys punching you in the face. You have semen from many guys all over your face, in your eyes. You get ripped. Your insides can come out of you. It’s never ending.”
- Elizabeth Rollings: ”I didn’t want to feel the pain of penetration from an over average sized man, being told to freeze in a position until the camera man was happy with his shots was very painful. I had peoples body fluids forced on my face or anywhere else the producer pleased and I had to accept it or else no pay. Sometimes you would get to a gig and the producer would change what the scene was supposed to be to something more intense and again if you didn’t like it, too bad, you did it or no pay.”
- Lucky Starr: ”I was worried about my first anal scene for quite a few days … then the big moment arrived. It REALLY hurt! I almost quit and said, “I can’t do this”. When it was all over, I was so happy and relieved I was able to do it…”
- Ashlyn Brooke: ”I honestly felt that if I had to have another strange man in my face, his hands (God knows where they’ve been all over me) him calling me his baby and having to exude some sort of forged passion for the world to see, I probably would have exploded. And what would have been stuck to the walls would have probably been nothing, just pieces of skin, bone, the brain of a robot, and what would have been left of what would have existed once as a huge and warm heart.”
- Roxy: ”After only 30 movies I caught two sexually transmitted diseases. Herpes, a non-curable disease and HPV, which led to cervical cancer where I had to have half of my cervix removed. Porn destroyed my life.”
- Anita Cannibal: ”Yeah, there are a lot of cover-ups going on. There is a lot of tragedy. There are a lot of horrible things.”
- Tamra Toryn: ”As for myself, I ended up paying the price from working in the porn industry. In 2006, not even 9 months in, I caught a moderate form of dysplasia of the cervix (which is a form of HPV, a sexually transmitted disease) and later that day, I also found out I was pregnant. I had only 1 choice which was to abort the baby during my first month. It was extremely painful emotionally and physically. When it was all over, I cried my eyes out.”
- Jessi Summers: ”I also did a scene where I was put with male talent that was on my no list. I wanted to please them so I did it. He put his foot on my head and stepped on it while he was doing me from behind. I freaked out and started balling; they stopped filming and sent me home with reduced pay since they got some shot but not the whole sce
- "teen" is the most commonly searched porn term
- child pornography is one of the fastest growing businesses online.
how pornographers feel about women:
- "I’d like to really show what I believe the men want to see: violence against women. I firmly believe that we [pornographers] serve a purpose by showing that. The most violent we can get is the cum shot in the face. Men get off behind that, because they get even with the women they can’t have. We try to inundate the world with orgasms in the face." - Bill Margold, porn industry veteran, quoted in Robert J. Stoller and I. S. Levine, Coming Attractions: The Making of an X-rated video; 1993.
- "There’s nothing I love more than when a girl insists to me that she won’t take a cock in her ass, because — oh yes she will!" -Max Hardcore, interviewed in Hustler (June 1995).
- "My whole reason for being in this Industry is to satisfy the desire of the men in the world who basically don’t much care for women and want to see the men in my Industry getting even with the women they couldn’t have when they were growing up. I strongly believe this… so we come on a woman’s face or somewhat brutalize her sexually: we’re getting even for their lost dreams. I believe this. I’ve heard audiences cheer me when I do something foul on screen. When I’ve strangled a person or sodomized a person, or brutalized a person, the audience is cheering my action, and then when I’ve fulfilled my warped desire, the audience applauds." - Bill Margold, porn industry veteran and Free Speech Coalition board member.
- "It might promote violence against women in the United States, but I say, ‘Good.’ I hate those bitches. They’re out of line and that’s one of the reasons I want to do this … I’m going through a divorce right now. … I hate American women." - What pornographers really think of women (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 14 October 1999)
- 88% of scenes contained physical aggression, including spanking, gagging, and slapping.
- Women were overwhelmingly the targets of aggressive acts, and men the perpetrators.
- Following instances of aggression towards women, in 95% of cases the women expressed pleasure or neutrality.
cases of porn leading children to commit sexual assualt IN THE UK ALONE:
- February 2014: A 13-year-old boy told a UK court that he raped his 8-year-old sister after viewing pornography at his friend’s house. The teenager told police he “decided to try it out” on his sister because she was small and “couldn’t remember stuff,” reported the Lancashire Telegraph.
- November 2013: A different 13-year old UK boy pleaded guilty to raping an eight-year old girlwhen he was 10. A pornography addiction since age 9 was said to have played a significant role in his crimes.
- March 2013: Two boys aged 14 and 15 admitted to a British court that they were re-enacting scenes witnessed in violent online pornography when they beat, brutalized, then raped a 14-year-old girl they had tied to a chair.
- March 2013: A UK report found that thousands of British children had committed sexual offenses. In all, 4,562 minors – some as young as five – committed 5,028 sexual offenses over a three year period from 2009-2012. Experts blamed “easy access to sexual material.”
- January 2012: Children’s aid and sex abuse organizations in Australia largely blamed 414 cases of children sexually abusing other children on the explosion of pornography made accessible to children.
- August 2012: A 13-year-old Canadian boy pleaded guilty to repeatedly raping a 4-year-old boy who lived in his foster home. The boy said the idea came from watching “gay porn” on his foster parents’ home computer.
- April 2012: A child therapist reported a case of a 13-year-old boy who raped his 5-year-old sisterafter developing a “complex fantasy world” warped by “two years of constant porn use.”
- Latinos and Hispanics: Pornography tends to stereotype Hispanic women as feisty, “hot and spicy Latinas”, sexy Señoritas, with a high sex drive and low impulse control. Many are portrayed as maids, illegal immigrants to the United States, or unfaithful wives. Since Latinos and Hispanics can be of any race (many are white Hispanic Americans, Mestizos etc.), cultural characteristics are sometimes portrayed via iconic items like South and Central American national costumes, sombreros, maracas, or Mexican dresses.
- Asian women: Are viewed as sexually willing or submissive. Asian men are hardly portrayed in pairing with white women and not as common compared to white men with asian women porn. Asian women are mainly portrayed as the: “Dragon Ladies”, as servile “Lotus Blossom Babies”, “Innocent School Girls” in private school uniforms, “China dolls”, “Geisha girls”, war brides, or prostitutes. Japanese media have also at times sensationalistically promoted the stereotype of Japanese women overseas as “yellow cabs”.
- Black performers: Large penis size in Black men is consistently emphasized in pornography, often by exclusively casting actors with larger than average penises such as Lexington Steele, Kid Bengala, Jack Napier and Mandingo. Men are often treated to stereotypes of gang affiliation, working class labor, and are overrepresented in gang rape fetish films. Also, they are represented as overly aggressive and demanding, and are performing with white women. Similarly, black women are often portrayed with large breast and buttocks, or ‘booty’. They normally play a submissive role while performing with a white male.
- Youth who look at violent x-rated material are six times more likely to report forcing someone to do something sexual online or in-person versus youth not exposed to x-rated material. 
- Middle-school aged boys who view X-rated content are almost three times more likely to report oral sex and sexual intercourse than boys who do not use sexually explicit material
- A study in the southeastern U.S. found that 53 percent of boys and 28 percent of girls (ages 12-15) reported use of sexually explicit media. The Internet was the most popular forum for viewing. 
- The words “sex” and “porn” rank fourth and sixth among the top ten most popular search terms. 
- Roughly two-thirds (67 percent) of young men and one-half (49 percent) of young women agree that viewing pornography is acceptable.
- Nearly 9 out of 10 (87 percent) young men and 1 out of 3 (31 percent) young women report using pornography.
- Experts have warned that the rise in the viewing of pornography was implicated in a variety of problems, including a rise in the levels of STDs and teenage pregnancies. Additionally, males aged between 12 and 17 who regularly viewed pornography had sex at an earlier stage in life and were more likely to initiate oral sex, apparently imitating what they had seen.  
- Internet pornography was blamed for a 20 percent increase in sexual attacks by children over three years.
- One out of three youth who viewed pornography, viewed the pornography intentionally.
- Seven out of ten youth have accidentally come across pornography online.
- Nearly 80 percent of unwanted exposure to pornography is taking place in the home (79 percent occurs in the home; 9 percent occurs at school; 7 percent other/unknown; 5 percent at a friend’s home).
- Kids experience unwanted exposure to sexual material via: A link came up as a result of an innocent word search (40 percent), Clicking on a link in another site (17 percent), A pop-up (14 percent), Other (13 percent), Misspelled web address (12 percent), Don’t know (4 percent), Pictures involving animals or other strange things (10 percent)
- Type of material youth encounter when unwanted exposure to pornography occurs: Naked people (86 percent), People having sex (37 percent), Violent pictures (13 percent)
- Nearly 74 percent of pornography websites surveyed display adult content on their homepage (accessible to anyone) before asking if the viewers are of legal age. 
- American children begin consuming hardcore pronography at an average age of 11
- Four out of five 16 year-olds regularly access pornography online
- Findings from the Youth Internet Safety Survey indicate that 15% of 12-17 year olds have purposefully looked at x-rated material online.
- Data from the PEW Internet and American Life Project suggest that 70% of 15-17 year old internet users accidently view pornography “very” or “Somewhat” often.
- Child pornography is a $3-billion industry. (Top Ten Reviews)
- Child pornography is one of the fastest growing businesses online, and the content is becoming much worse. (Internet Watch Foundation) Internet Watch Foundation confirmed 1536 child abuse domains in 2008.
- The fastest growing demand in commercial websites for child abuse is for images depicting the worst type of abuse, including penetrative sexual activity involving children and adults and sadism or penetration by an animal. 58% of child sexual abuse images depict this level of abuse. (IWF, 2008)
- 69% of all victims in child abuse images are between the ages of 0 and 10 years old. (IWF, 2008)
- In a study of arrested child pornography possessors, 40 percent had both sexually victimized children and were in possession of child pornography. Of those arrested between 2000 and 2001, 83 percent had images involving children between the ages 6 and 12; 39 percent had images of children between ages 3 and 5; and 19% had images of infants and toddlers under age 3 (National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Child Pornography Possessors Arrested in Internet-Related Crimes: Findings fro the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study. 2005).
- further decline in dopamine levels
- further decline in opioids and endorphins
- drop-off in GABA, which is an anti-anxiety neurotransmitter
- rise in brain stress hormones CRF and norepinephrine
- elevated dynorphin which inhibits dopamine and lowers your pleasure response
- one week after quitting the reward center sprouts new nerve cell branches, which correlate with cravings to use
- More sources on addiction to porn
- Poor concentration
- Social isolation
- Loss of libido (Can take days to manifest, and last a long time)
- Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
- Believing women suffer less from rape
- Believing women in general enjoy rape
- Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
- Believing women make false accusations of rape
- Believing rapist deserve less jail time
- More acceptance of the rape myth
- More acceptance of violence against women
- More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently
- Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
- More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
- More self-reported likelihood of rape
- Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
- Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
- More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
- More likelihood of future rape
- Using physical coercion to have sex
- Using verbal coercion to have sex
- Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
- Having engaged in rape
- Having engaged in date rape
- Having engaged in marital rape
- Being an adult sex offender
- Being a child molester
- Being an incest offender
- Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
- More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
- More sexual attraction to children
- Having sexually abused children
Life and death of a porn star:
- all the women who don’t make money from the porn industry.
- the women who are kidnapped, tortured, and forced into snuff films.
- the skeletons that NAFTA keeps hidden in cobweb-ridden closets on the U.S.-Mexican border.
- their average career length is 3 months. [x] [x]
If you don’t feel like reading:
- Shelley Lubben: Porn as a driver for prostitution and sex trafficking, (Vimeo)
- Cindy Gallop: Make love, not porn (Adult content)
- "They call it fantasy," - Andrea Dworkin
- Ex-Pornstar Jan Villarubia tells her story
- Dr. Gail Dines addressing porn culture and rape culture’s intersecting roles in patriarchy
- “Two Ex-Porn Stars Uncover The Truth About Porn.”
- This guy stopped watching porn — and he wants you to know why.
- Facing Life Head-On: Satan’s Final Frontier—the Sex Industry
- Dr. Gail Dine’s lectures on pornography on youtube (1, 2, 3, 4)
- This video has footage the porn industry doesn’t want you to see. Women are abused, screaming, crying, raped and in pain on the porn set…No woman should have to go to work only to return home beaten and traumatized.”
- On the show Date My Pornstar, porn fans get to interact and converse with their favorite pornstars about their experiences in the industry
- The story of ex-pornstar ‘Sal’, (Pink Cross Foundation)
- Porn actress Sierra Sinn Leaves Porn
- On the Joni talk show, ex-porn actresses come forward to share their experiences on what drove them into the porn industry, how it impacted their lives and what drove them out.
- Here is a site that has testimonies from lots of porn stars. The site is run by an ex pornstar who has dedicated her life to helping the women in the industry.
- Here is an article about Linda Lovelace, star of Deep Throat, basically the first pornography film, talking about how the film was her being raped, and the other atrocities she went through in the porn industry.
- Here is a video of a talk show where three porn actresses speak out against the industry and tell their stories. I can assure you, these are not extreme cases. This is the average life of porn stars.
- Here has great information on the porn industry, and if you scroll down to Porn and the Performer, you can read statistics about the porn industry and porn actresses and what they suffer through.
- Here is some facts about porn from Shelley Lubbens website.
- How porn harms the economy
- How porn harms relationships
- How porn harms gay men
- How porn harms gay women
- How porn harms POC
- Stop Porn Culture’s FAQ
- 400+ dead porn stars obituaries
- more databases on dead porn stars
- More testimonies
- 100+ stories
- anti porn documentaries
- Shelley Lubben.com (Ex porn-star helping other porn stars)
- Shelley Lubben’s MySpace Website
- List of Dead Porn Stars and How They Died
- Where My Ladies At (About porn and it’s connection to hip hop and rap.)
- Feminist Fred: A Place for Men to Learn about Feminism (Also home of Pornsick Pat)
- Compulsion Solutions
- Internet Pornography Statistics (InternetFilterReview.com)
- Porn and Sex Industry Statistics (Enough is Enough.)
- Pornography and Sex Trade Statistics (Most thorough and documented.)
- PBS Documentary “Porn In America”. Full video and lots of information.
- XXX Family Values: ABC Primetime Show about Porn Star Sunny Lane. (Sunny’s parents are her managers. Transcript and video clip at link.)
- ABC Primetime Interview with Porn Star Belladonn (Tells the harsh truth about porn.)
- Porn Profits: Corporate America’s Secret (ABC Primetime Show.)
- Anti-Pornography and Prostitution Research Group (Japan)
- Pornography: Creating Demand for International Sex Trafficking (By Shared Hope International)
- SHIT LOAD OF STATS
if these links aka fucking cold hard proof dont make you stop watching it, i hope you drop dead.
PLEASE READ ALL OF THIS IF YOU WATCH PORN. It’s super important.
Mark Ciavarella Jr, a 61-year old former judge in Pennsylvania, has been sentenced to nearly 30 years in prison for literally selling young juveniles for cash. He was convicted of accepting money in exchange for incarcerating thousands of adults and children into a prison facility owned by a developer who was paying him under the table. The kickbacks amounted to more than $1 million.
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has overturned some 4,000 convictions issued by him between 2003 and 2008, claiming he violated the constitutional rights of the juveniles – including the right to legal counsel and the right to intelligently enter a plea. Some of the juveniles he sentenced were as young as 10-years old.
Ciavarella was convicted of 12 counts, including racketeering, money laundering, mail fraud and tax evasion. He was also ordered to repay $1.2 million in restitution.
His “kids for cash” program has revealed that corruption is indeed within the prison system, mostly driven by the growth in private prisons seeking profits by any means necessary.
Why might this not be a HUGE national story and his name not household? I’ll give you one guess what color those kids were
Of course, not all women of color are sexualized in the same way. For example, while black women are considered lascivious, always consenting and out of control, Latina women are considered exotic or overly sensual and Asian women are considered childish and prude. These particular stereotypes are reinforced through popular culture and pornography (just Google respectively “Asian women,” “black women,” or “Latina women” and then “women” and see what comes up). The common thread here is that nonwhite women’s sexuality is seen as outside the norm of white heterosexuality. It’s therefore something to be uniquely desired, manipulated, exploited, or controlled. Within this rather toxic climate, being a woman of color who’s in touch with her sexuality is an act of resistance. Pushing past the negative media depictions and still finding a healthy, healing, erotic, and functional sexuality is no small feat.
Michael Simmons: “If a female student got drunk and had her car stolen the university would call the police. If she got drunk and had her computer stolen, they would call the police. If she got drunk and had her phone stolen, they would call the police. The fact that she was drunk would not even be factored in when assessing if a crime had been committed. But if she gets drunk and has her body invaded and her humanity stolen, school administrations are perplexed about what to do.”
—International Human Rights Activist Michael Simmons offered these words (via Facebook) in response to the May 3, 2014 New York Times’ “Fight Against Sex Assaults Holds Colleges to Account” article. (via kenyabenyagurl)
Princeton University psychologist Susan Fiske took brain scans of heterosexual men while they looked at sexualised images of women wearing bikinis. She found that the part of their brains that became activated was pre-motor - areas that usually light up when people anticipate using tools. The men were reacting to the images as if the women were objects they were going to act on. Particularly shocking was the discovery that the participants who scored highest on tests of hostile sexism were those most likely to deactivate the part of the brain that considers other people’s intentions (the medial prefrontal cortex) while looking at the pictures. These men were responding to images of the women as if they were non-human.
Today is Africa Day - May 25th 2014. Here is some history:
After the World War II, the process of decolonization of the African continent gathered momentum as Africans increasingly agitated for more political rights and independence. While in other parts of the continent colonial powers reluctantly and grudgingly relinquished power, in other parts African people launched protracted struggles against the recalcitrant colonial regimes. Thus, between 1945 and 1965 a significant number of African countries gained independence from European colonial powers. Ghana became the first African country south of the Sahara to gain independence on 6 March 1957. Its independence served an inspiration to other African countries struggling against colonial rule and as a result Ghana occupied a central role in the struggle against colonial rule.
Just over a year after its independence Ghana under the leadership Kwame Nkrumah convened the first Conference of Independent African States on 15 April 1958. Amongst those countries that attended were Ghana, Ethiopia, Sudan, Liberia, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia amongst others. There were also representatives of the National Liberation Front of Algeria andthe Union of Cameroonian Peoples. It is worth noting that there were only eight African countries who were independent at this time. The conference was an unequivocal assertion of Africa’s rejection of colonial and imperialist domination of the continent. It became the first Pan African conference to be held on the continent bringing together various African countries. Furthermore, the conference became a collective platform from which African countries sought to cooperate in the struggle against colonialism.
To further encourage and forge a common goal of fighting against colonial rule, the conference called for the observance of African Freedom Day once a year, to mark “the onward progress of the liberation movement, and to symbolize the determination of the People of Africa to free themselves from foreign domination and exploitation.” Consequently, 15 April was enacted as called it African Freedom Day (or Africa Liberation Day), and this marked the beginning of what would later be known as Africa Day.
Subsequent to the April conference another conference, the All Africa People’s Conference (AAPC) was held on 8-13 December 1958 in Accra Ghana. The AAPC was attended by both independent and non independent countries, representatives of liberation movements. From South Africa, the African National Congress (ANC) could not formally attend as the organisation was prevented by the apartheid government from doing so. However, a memorandum was sent to the conference. Alfred Hutchinson, a member of the ANC in the Transvaal and 1956 Treason Trialist who left the country without a passport after his acquittal attended the AAPC on behalf of the ANC. Also in attendance was Patrick Duncan, then a member of the Liberal Party of South Africa (LPSA). Duncan later joined the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).
From 1959 to 1963 African Liberation Day was celebrated in Ethiopia, South Africa, Ghana and by African people in Britain, China, Soviet Union and the United States (US). Other conferences were held in January 1960 in Tunisia followed by another one in Egypt in March 1961. As more African countries became independent, the need for an organisation that would articulate aspirations of African people and their struggle arose. Consequently on 25 May 1963, leaders of 32 African nations converged in Ethiopia‘s capital Addis Ababa and formed the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
The organization agreed to have an annual assembly of heads of state, a council of ministers a general secretariat and a commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration. Perhaps, more importantly the OAU supported the struggle for liberation in Southern African through the OAU Liberation Committee. Both the ANC and PAC received support in the struggle against apartheid from the OAU through this committee.
Amongst other things agreed during at the formation of the OAU was to change the date of Africa Freedom Day on 15 April to 25 May. As a consequence of the change African nations celebrate Africa Day on this date. After the first democratic election in 1994, South Africa joined the OAU on 23 May 1994. Another significant development connected to this date was the replacement of the OAU 38 years after its formation by the African Union (AU) on 25 May 2001.
Nesbitt, F.N, (2004),Race for Sanctions: African Americans Against Apartheid, 1946-1994, (Indiana University Press), pp.77-79.
- Pambazuka News, (2010),African Liberation Day: A celebration of resistance, from Pambazuka News, Issue 584, 25 May, [online], Available at www.pambazuka.org[Accessed 22 May 2012]
- BBC, 1963: African states unite against white rule, from the BBC- On This Day, [online] Available at news.bbc.co.uk/[Accessed 22 May 2012]
- Organization of African Unity (OAU) / African Union (AU), from the Department of International Relations and Cooperation, [online] Available at www.dfa.gov.za[Accessed 22 May 2012]